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朱光耀:在亚洲开发银行理事会第46届年会上的讲话

财政部副部长  朱光耀

    很高兴来到新德里参加亚行年会。我对印度政府和人民热情周到的安排表示衷心感谢。

  我祝贺中尾武彦先生出任亚行行长。

  当前国际经济形势依然复杂多变,世界经济低速增长态势仍将延续,全球总需求不足,亚洲也面临着内在结构改革和外需持续疲软的双重挑战。亚行作为亚洲地区的发展融资机构,应有所作为,为深化区域经济一体化、扩大区域内需、促进区域内生产性投资作出贡献。为此,我提出以下三点建议:

  第一,调整战略重点,促进区域互联互通。在经济全球化的大趋势下,如果说亚洲人有何特性,就是4E,即重视教育、重视实体经济、重视就业、重视交流。亚洲文化的特征就是和谐和包容。亚行在其业务实践中要体现亚洲文化的特点,反映本地区各个国家的需求。亚行应扩大对成员国基础设施的贷款规模,简化程序、提高效率,通过支持基础设施发展,为成员国经济可持续发展打下基础,也为扩大区域内投资需求,推动经济增长作出贡献。亚行还应进一步加大对区域经济一体化的支持力度,推进区域内基础设施互联互通,为域内不同发展阶段国家互利互补、共享繁荣奠定物质基础。

  第二,增强资金实力,完善治理结构。贷款能力下降是亚行当前面临的迫切挑战,将严重影响亚行作为区域主要开发机构向发展中成员提供发展援助的能力。我们敦促亚行加强与各成员磋商,拿出一揽子解决方案。不应仅仅解决短期资金缺口问题,还应着眼长远,改革制约亚行资金能力和长远发展的治理结构,提高发展中国家的发言权和代表性,使治理结构更准确地反映亚洲地区经济格局的变化,更有效地提升成员国为亚行发展承担责任的意愿和能力。

  第三,深化结构改革,推进亚洲经济发展。当前,亚洲面临着复杂的经济发展环境,既有机遇,也有挑战。亚洲是世界经济增长最快的地区。近年来,亚洲对世界经济增长的贡献率已超过50%。要保持这种增长态势,亚洲所有国家应当加强政策协调,形成合力。我们高度关注世界主要经济体实施的量化宽松货币政策的外溢性。我们认为,日本确实有必要采取重大的经济改革措施,以摆脱长达十五年之久的通货紧缩,但正确的选择是进行经济结构的调整,货币政策不能替代结构性改革,尽管这一过程是要付出代价和痛苦的。在利率长期为零的情况下,以达到2%的通胀水平为目标,推出大规模量化宽松的货币政策,是不会产生可持续的经济推动力的,而其导致的过度流动性无法被实体经济和资本市场所吸纳,结果只能是对汇率和资本流动产生影响。这就是政策的外溢性,且已经对周边国家,特别是与日本经济结构相似的国家产生影响,使得这些国家不得不出台紧急的经济刺激计划加以应对。我们必须强调货币政策只能服务于实现国内经济目标,避免竞争性贬值和以竞争性为目的设置汇率目标。

  面对新的挑战,亚洲国家应该加强政策协调,深化经济结构改革,增强发展动力,寻求新的经济增长点,并在各自改革的进程中寻求新的合作领域和合作空间。中国正在加大经济结构调整的力度,进一步扩大改革和开放,以开放促改革、促结构调整、促创新,实现中国经济的持续健康发展。中国愿继续与亚行及其他成员一道,为亚洲地区共同繁荣做出不懈努力!

  谢谢!

 

Deepening economic structural reform, enhancing infrastructure construction cooperation
and maintaining economic vitality in Asia
 

Address at the 46th Annual Meeting of the ADB Board of Governors 

Vice Finance Minister Zhu Guangyao 

The People’s Republic of China 

It gives me great pleasure to attend the ADB annual meeting in New Delhi. I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude to the Indian government and people for the warm hospitality.  

I congratulate Mr. Takehiko Nakao on his election as President of ADB.  

At present, the global economic situation remains complex and volatile, and the weak growth momentum continues. The world aggregate demand is insufficient, and Asia is facing double challenges of internal structural reform and weakening external demand. As a multilateral development institution in Asia, ADB should uphold its due mandate and make contributions to intensifying economic integration, expanding intra-regional demand and promoting investment in real economy in this region. To this end, I would like to make the following three points.  

Firstly, adjusting strategic priorities and promoting regional interconnectivity. The characteristics of Asian people in the era of economic globalization can be generalized as 4Es, namely valuing education, real economy, employment and exchanges. The feature of Asian cultures boils down to harmony and inclusiveness. In its business operations, ADB should highlight such a feature, and reflect demand of each country in this region. ADB should expand its lending scale for the member countries’ infrastructure projects, streamline the procedure and enhance its efficiency. ADB’s support in infrastructure will lay a solid foundation for the member countries to achieve sustainable economic development and make contributions to expanding intra-regional investment demand and fueling economic growth in this region. Meanwhile, ADB should strengthen its support to regional economic integration and interconnectivity of infrastructure, so as to create a material foundation for the regional members with different development stages to draw upon each other’s strengths and share prosperity.  

Secondly, strengthening financial capacity and improving governance structure. The immediate challenge to ADB at present is the weakening lending capacity, which will severely affect ADB’s capacity to provide development assistance to its developing members. We therefore urge ADB to consult with all members and put forward a package of solutions. Such a package should not only focus on addressing the short-term problem of financial constraint, but also take a long-term vision, including reforming ADB’s governance structure that currently dampens its financial capacity and its long-term development, and increasing voice and representation of developing countries. By so doing, ADB will make its governance structure more accurately reflect the changing economic weights in Asia and more effectively enhance the will and capacity of member countries to hold responsibility for ADB’s development.  

Thirdly, deepening structural reform and promoting economic development in Asia. At present, Asia is in a complex economic environment, where there are both opportunities and challenges. Asia is the most dynamic region in the world. In recent years, its contribution to global economic growth has surpassed 50%. To maintain such a growth momentum requires all countries in the region to strengthen policy coordination and create synergy effect. We therefore pay high attention to the spillover effectiveness of the QE monetary policies adopted by the major economies in the world. We recognize that indeed there is a need for Japan to carry out key economic reforms to get rid of deflation quandary, which has last 15 years. However, the right policy choice should be economic restructuring. The monetary policy cannot substitute structural reform, even though this will be a painful process at costs. For many years, Japan’s interest rates had been kept almost zero. The massive QE monetary policy with 2% inflation target will not generate sustainable thrust to the economy. Moreover, its excessive liquidity cannot be absorbed by the real economy and the capital market. The inevitable consequence will be impact on exchange rates and capital flow. The policy spillover effect has already exerted impacts on its neighboring countries, particularly those having similar economic structure with Japan. As a result, these countries have to urgently launch stimulus packages in response. We must emphasize that each country’s monetary policy should remain oriented towards domestic objectives and refrain from competitive devaluation and targeting its exchange rate for competitive purposes.  

Facing these new challenges, Asian countries should strengthen policy coordination, deepen economic restructuring reform and reinforce our development strength by creating new growth engines, so that we can explore new areas for cooperation in our respective reform agenda. China is now intensifying its economic restructuring process and will further promote reform and opening up. Further openness will contribute to China’s reform, restructuring and innovation, thus fulfilling its sustainable and healthy growth. China will continue to work with ADB and other members to make unremitting efforts for common prosperity in Asia! 

Thank you.  

 

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